Witchology, the history of Wicca & Witchcraft
by Dr Leo Ruickbie

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Read Dr Ruickbie on witchcraft and magic in Paranormal magazine.

What is Witchcraft?

That's what this website is here to find out. Witchology.com is the website of WICA - the Witchcraft Information Centre and Archive - founded in 1999 by Dr Leo Ruickbie as a research and education provider specialising in the areas of Witchcraft, Wicca, Paganism, Magic (Magick) and the Occult. We have been online continuously since 2000.

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About Leo Ruickbie's Books:

The Supernatural"The Supernatural is the perfect introduction to the world of all things eerie, inexplicable and otherworldly." - Jason Karl, Most Haunted
Coming in 2012!

Witchcraft out of the Shadows: A Complete History"Witchcraft out of the Shadows: A Complete History is an engaging book which deserves to be the benchmark for all future analyses of the Craft." More

Faustus: The Life and Times of a Renaissance Magician"Dr Ruickbie has re-evaluated the Faust tradition from a position of authority. A work of meticulous scholarship that can be read as a gripping page-turner." More


Open Source WiccaHistories of the Barbarians: Vandals, Goths and FranksBeowulf in Anglo-Saxon and English Translation


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Magic in Wicca and Modern Witchcraft

History of Witchcraft & Wicca

Magic, the word itself conjures up the strangest ideas, but what does magic mean to those who use it? What do they use magic for? What effect does magic have on them? I asked the Witches and Wiccans themselves. Do you want to know what they said?

The Definition, Use and Effect of Magic in Witchcraft

Extract from Leo Ruickbie's Witchcraft Out of the Shadows

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9. Drawing the Magic Circle: The Definition, Use and Effect of Magic in Modern Witchcraft


'I conjure thee, O Circle of Power, that thou beest a meeting-place of love and joy and truth; a shield against all wickedness and evil; a boundary between the world of men and the realms of the Mighty Ones; a rampart and protection that shall preserve and contain the power that we shall raise within thee. Wherefore I bless thee and consecrate thee, in the names of Cernunnos and Aradia.'1


The chants rose and fell on Samhain night sung from the lips of the dancers whirling round a blazing bonfire. Under the night sky, bright with Winter-sharp starlight and a crescent moon resting on the treetops, in a clearing in an orchard at the end of many dark lanes, in a little village within commuting distance of London, Witches worked their magic. They began by opening the magic circle, calling the elemental guardians or watchtowers of the four quarters to establish the sacred space of Witchcraft and scene of magical operations.


As she carves the invisible with her Athame, shaping a magic circle where reality becomes unreal and the unreal real, what does our modern Witch mean by magic? What does our modern Witch use this magic for? And what effect does it have upon her? We will examine both written accounts and previously unpublished interview transcripts to explore the varieties of definition, to attempt a classification of such variety, to reveal what Witches use magic for and to discover what the effect of practising magic is.


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Hardback 2004 1st Edition (sold out)

Paperback 2011 2nd Edition

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